IFRA International Fragrance Association whose main purpose is to promote the safe enjoyment of fragrances worldwide. IFRA represents the fragrance industry regional and national associations worldwide
Imitation Fragrances Copy-cat perfumes, the bane of Perfume House; however a Dutch Court ruled in July 2004 in favour of Lancôme that the selling a cheap imitation under another name constitutes a copyright violation; this not only covers the name but the ingredients as well.
Incense Or frankincense or olibanum; all one of the same: used since ancient times by the Egyptians, Romans and Arabs; incense is a fragrant scent material that was burnt to communicate with gods or spirits of the dead, to fumigate, to purify, to protect from evil and disease and to facilitate meditation and prayer; early Christians also used it in their churches. Modern incense is usually in the form of Indian joss sticks, formed by binding powdered resins and other aromatic materials into a paste with a gum and rolling into sticks;' it has the classic church smell with its almost medicinal top note and erotic under tone' unquote
Indian frankincense Of the genus boswellia serrata
Indian perfumes India is the home to many natural fragrant plants, spices, woods and resins and has a long history if using scents in rituals, medicinal and domestic.
Infusion The process of producing flower oils by extraction at 65 degrees C with the use of alcohol.
Irone A naturally present molecule in the rhizome with an earthy powdery signature
Iris The essential oils come from the iris roots (not flowers), also from Florentine iris; they are peeled, dried and stored, then distilled to exude a sweet violet/woody fragrance; a very expensive process and are found in more up-market fragrances.
Iso E Super An aroma chemical; described by International Flavors & Fragrances as "Smooth, woody, amber note with a 'velvet' like sensation. Superb floralizer. Used to impart fullness and subtle strength to fragrances."
Jacée Of the genus centaurea jacea not so well known flower in perfumery industry but used in the past as a floral prototype
Jacinthe French for Hyacinth
Jaisalmer A fragrance by Comme des Garçons, named after the fortified town of Jaisalmer in the province of Rajasthan in India; was an important stopover on the camel trade routes known as the Silk Road. Incense is one of the traditional offerings used in Hindu ritual, and as in the Catholic Church, also a symbol of purification and prayer.
Japanese perfumes Perfumes were introduced into Japan by monks and by trade delegations from China: both burned incense in their temples. Perfumes were worn in lacquer cases and in the folds of kimonos: also in the folding sandalwood fans.
Japanese rose Of the genus rosa rugosa; has a delicate aroma
Jasmine Or Jasmin is called the King of Flowers (Rose being the Queen), and indeed this is probably the most masculine of all the floral aromas.
Jasmine Absolute is obtained from the genus jasminum grandiflorum, name derived from the Persian word 'yasmin'. The delicate white flowers open at night to release their sweet and very intense smell; during the day the petals close. Picked at dawn the flowers are processed immediately usually by the extraction method to obtain the essential oil. As it is limited supply it is costly especially as the scent cannot be precisely reproduced chemically.
Jasmine Absolute Contains more than 300 different components, and traditionally, inspiration comes from the constituents identified.
Jasminade The term used to describe the floral note reflects the effect of heavy jasmine flowers floating in a lemonade
Jet A hard coal mined in Whitby in England; highly polished and carved; or a type pf brown coal or fossilized wood from an ancient tree; easily carved and used for mourning jewellery; or commonly used term to describe a deep glossy black colour
Jewel Imitation precious or semi-precious stones made of glass, commonly used in combination with ormolu to decorate perfume bottles
Jojoba oil Obtained from the seed of a small tree belonging to the box family; used in beauty preparations as well as perfumes.
Juice Perfumers common name for the fragrant liquid
Juniper There are over 60 species of the evergreen tree/shrub genus j uniperus, grown commercial in Europe as well as Canada; most of the crop used for flavouring and in medicine but some is steam-distilled to provide the essential oil that has a fresh sweet aroma with woody and balsamic undertones.
Jus Perfumery term commonly applied to the alcoholic solution of a perfume concentrate
Kalamanzi Also called calamansi, acid orange or Panama orange. A citrus fruit, with a sour flavor said to resemble a cross between mandarin and lime.
Karmaflor A Givaudan molecule
Karo Karounde A West African flowering shrub related to the gardenia, also refered to as karo karunde) The scent, which is apparently very potent in the wild, has been described as somewhat similar to jasmine, but woodier, spicier and more herbal.
Kazanlik Rose From the Turkish means "suitable for the [distiller's] kettle"; originated the Persian rose plantations around Shiraz and Ashan, which in turn supplied fields in Syria.
A legend among the growers of al-Hada says that the flower originally came from India.
Kazanluk Bulgaria A town and region in Bulgaria known as 'The Valley of the Roses' for the abundance of the flowers produced for the perfume industry. More than a thousand varieties of damask rose are cultivated, most are exported to France.
Khus Also refered to as khus-khus. An Indian term for vetiver, or the oil derived from vetiver roots (refer).
Kweda Of the genus pandanus odoratissimus; a small tree native to India; cultivated and grows wild in coastal areas; the flowers seem to create their most exquisite floral bouquet in certain coastal localities, the most famous being the Ganjam district of Orrisa.
Kyara Extracted from agar-wood -a very sort-after and expensive ingredient
Labdanum Of the genus cistus ladaniferus; the oil has a warm, sweet, dry-herbaceous musky scent. The absolute has a sweet herbaceous balsamic odour.
Lalique Flacons  
Ambroise
  A silver frosted tiered flacon designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Amélie
  A tiered frosted bottle designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Amour
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie Part of The Ultimate Collection of Falcons.
Anses et Bouchon Marguerite
  A clear angular bottle with frosted open wings and matching stopper; designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Baptiste
  Flacon with a clear glass bowl surmounted with three 'waves' of spirals; designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Bouchon Papillion
  A pink frosted flacon designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Cactus
  A white opaque flacon with black tips to the points (prickles) designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Cagales
  (Cicadas) A clear square bottle with a cicadas on each facet; designed by Marie-Claude Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Camille
  A dark blue swirled bottle designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Carré Hirondelle
  (Swallow Square) A clear square bottle covered on both sides with a mass of birds in flight, designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Dahlia
  A white frosted flacon, the face as a flower, designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Deux Fleurs
1935
A clear frosted bottle and stopper with two overlapping flowers on face, designed by René Lalique
Glycines
  (Wisteria) A square green shaped flacon embossed with wisteria catkins, designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Grégoire
  A clear eight shell-like segmented bottle designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Hélène
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Lentilles
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Les Perles
  Frosted bottle embossed with pearl necklaces, designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Palerme
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Pan
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Panier de Roses
  (Basket of Roses) A tall pink frosted bottle shaped as a basket, the stopper being a bunch of roses, designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Quatre Soleils
  (Four Suns) A squat round deep amber bottle with four 'sun' medallions; designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Salamandres
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Telline
  Designed by Maison Lalique and made by René Lalique et Cie
Lalique Miniatures   The Ultimate Collection of Falcons; a series of specially designed bottles
Muse
1993
 
Lalique de Lalique
1994
 
Jamin
1995
 
Le Nu
1996
 
Ondines
1997
 
Amour
1998
 
Sylphide
2000
 
Sirènes
2001
 
Les Elfes
2002
 
Latticino Referring to clear glass decorated with embedded threads of glass, usually white; named from the Italian 'latte' meaning milk
Lavender The word is derived from the Latin lavare, who wants to say to wash! The Romans added it to their detergent from where also the origin of the word lavender field.
Of the genus lavendula augustiflora, an aromatic herb prized from ancient times, grown extensively in Provence and Italy for the perfume industry.
There are four types of essential oil; see below
true lavender
From the genus lavandula angustifolia ou officinalis. Used in high-quality perfumes and colognes
maritime lavender
From the genus lavandula stoechas; used for inexpensive fragrances
lavender aspic
From the genus lavendula latifolia, also referred to as 'Spike Oil'; used for toiletries and household products
lavandin oil
From the genus lavendula x intermedia , used mainly for inexpensive perfumes and toiletries
Lavender French = lavendula; German = Lavendel
Labdanum Most of the essential oil used in perfumery comes from the genus cistus ladaniferus , a native shrub of the mountainous regions of Africa and Europe. Labdanum is sometimes listed as amber in perfume ingredients as it is almost equivalent to the now scarce ambergris. It has a sexy, rich, animalic scent with a leather undertone, goes well with oak moss.
Laydown Perfume Bottle A perfume bottle that has no flat base on which to stand; also see 'Double laydowns'
Lead glass Refer to Glass
Leather Obtained from the rawhide treated with birch bark and then boiled down to a rich, smokey essence with a burnished leathery smell.
Lecythiophile Is a collector of perfumes, the word “lecythe” coming from the Greek word “lêkuthos”, is a Greek mud with long collar, in which one put perfumes and oil and “phile” coming from the Greek word “philein” wants to say “to love".
Lehr A tunnel oven with a continuously moving belt going through controlled heat zones
Lemon The lemon tree, genus citrus limonia was probably indigenous to southern China, a small thorny evergreen now grown worldwide. Although the lemon flower is highly fragrant the essential oil is cold-pressed from the zest of the fruit and has a pale yellow green colouring which brown with age.
Lemon French = citron; German = Zitrone
Lenomcello A bitter sweet Italian lemon liquor
Lemon grass Is neither related to a lemon nor to a grass; the oil used in perfumery is distilled from andropogon citrates , a species of grass native to the Indian sub-continent; also obtained from cymbopogon nardus , grows in the Middle East and has an aroma like spikenard; also from cymbopogon schoenanthus, grows in Egypt and Arabia and has a subtle rose-like aroma
Les Secret de Maistre Alexys de Piedmontois By Girolamo Ruscelli, earliest French book on Perfumes, published in 1555
Levy, Maurice Established in 1898 in New York, first introduced metal containers for cosmetics; importer for Oriza L LeGrand and Payan; invented the lipstick in 1915. Also launched fragrances
Liatus Liatris Absolute is obtained from the genus liatris odoratissima which originated from France. The roots are extracted or infused. The leaves of this plant become very fragrant when dried. The Absolute has a high content of coumarin and related compounds make it an excellent fixative, however, it does have an intense fragrance
Lichen French = mousse; German = Moos
Licorice Used for centuries in China and ancient Greece, a fragrance that vacillates between sweet and cool
Light notes Are usually fresh, floral, citrus, fruity or green, referred to as light
Lilac Of the genus syringa vulgaris is common ornamental garden shrub; originated in the Balkans and Asia Minor. It was only recently with the introduction of carbon dioxide as a solvent that the true fragrant lilac oil could be extracted, which is also know as syringa.
The capital city of the Lilac is Nancy, France
Lilac French = lilas; German = Flieder
Lily Of the genus Lilium genus; the true lilies consist of over 100 species and thousands of garden cultivars but only two species are used for making an essential oil for perfumery, the Madonna lily ( L. candidium) and the Easter Lily ( L. langiflorum), the essential is produced by steam distillation. Lily notes in modern perfumes tend to be from synthetic versions of the plant essence.
Lily French = fleur de lis; German = lilie
Lily of the Valley Of the genus convallaria majalis, has a surprisingly all-pervading perfume for such a delicate flowered plant; also known as May Lily, ladder-to-heaven, Jacob’s ladder, and Our Lady’s tears and in French ‘Muguet’.
Lily of the Valley French = muguet; German = Maiglöckchen
Lime Part of the citrus family, of the genus citrus aurantifolia; mainly produced in Haiti and Mexico for the perfumery industry
Lime French = limonier; German = limette
Lime Blossom French is Tilleul: renowned for its clear crisp notes; used extensively in the perfume and toiletry industry
Limited Editions Unusually for a particular season or year and then discontinued
Linalool A sweet, silken, calming floral fragrance with rosy and herbaceous notes but with a slight bitter edge, extracted from rosewood. Also found in coriander, lavender and Lavandin.
Linden Blossom Obtained from the genus tilia vulgais, native to southern France. Has highly fragrant leaves. The essential is obtained from the dry flowers, processed to a concrete followed by an absolute. Also referred to as Lyne, Tillet or Tilea.
Linden Tilleul Also known as the lime tree (lime blossom): basswood genus tilia has about 30 species, native to the northern hemisphere. The fragrant oil known as Tilleul from the botanical name and is derived mostly from the flowers of the European Linden, T. europea, which are treated with solvent to yield both a concrete and an absolute. It has highly fragrant leaves used in pot pourri
Line Or 'Product Line'; a concept first employed by Oriza LeGrand in 1886; which included not only a fragrance but complimentary toiletry items
Linear fragrances Are built around a single accord or note, present all their, (usual floral ingredients) at once, rather than having a traditional pyramid shape, top, heart and base notes.
Lithyalin Marbled opaque glass made in Bohemia between 1828 to 1840 by Eggerman
Litsea Cubeba Of the genus litsea cubeba persoon; grown mainly in China. The essential oil is extracted from the fruit
Living Flower Technology A technique used to capture the aroma given off by growing plants; encapsulating the surrounding air; this is analysed using gas chromatography which gives a breakdown of the flower’s chemical composition; 'Headspace Analysis'
Lotus There are over 100 varieties in the genus; today the term ‘lotus’ refers to two different but closely related families of plant both favour wet and swampy environments, the nymphea water lilies and the Asian scared lotus, nelumbo nucifera both have complex but elusive scents. However with ‘living’ flower technology every nuance of the fragrance has been captured.
Lotus Flower German = Lotosblüte
Loveage From the herb genus umbelliferae levisticum officinale, grows wild in central and southern Europe and is cultivated in numerous countries. The oil is steam distilled from the comminuted roots producing an amber to olive brown coloured liquid with a very powerful and rich, spicy warm, fresh aromatic, intensely sweet and 'root like' odour, suggestive of celery, angelica, Deer-tongue (Liatris), etc. It belongs to the group of medicinal plants commonly cultivated by the monks in medieval times all over Europe.
Lovage is used in perfumes in minute amounts to produce 'special effects', or to lend warm background notes in spicy or Oriental bases.
Lustre painting The process of applying metallic oxide pigments to a glass surface; the subsequent firing in a reduction atmosphere creates an iridescent translucent effect
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